Human influences on bee pollinators

Bee pollinators are critically important for agricultural and natural ecosystems. Together, wild and managed bee species contribute to the pollination of 80 crops with an estimated annual value of >$200 billion globally, >$29 billion for US agriculture, and >$9 billion for California.

Ecological interactions in managed systems

Anthropogenic effects, notably, habitat conversion from natural to managed systems, can alter interactions between plants, insects, and microbial communities; but these effects on such complex systems are poorly understood. Bacteria and yeast that live in floral nectar affect pollinator visitation and influence floral characteristics.